BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 : Besoins de satisfaction et frustrations au travail (Marie-Pier Dupuis)

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BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Dupuis, Marie-Pier (2018). Compte rendu de Y. Longo, A. Gunz, G.J. Curtis et T. Farsides, 2016, Measuring need satisfaction and frustration in educational and work contexts: The Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS). Journal of Happiness Studies. 17(1), 295-317.

 Cette présente recherche identifie un manque de ressources dans différents milieux qui peut affecter les besoins de satisfaction de l’individu. Le sujet s’attaque au bien-être ressenti, mesuré par la satisfaction ou la frustration dans les relations, au niveau de la compétence et pour l’autonomie. Le but étant de confirmer explicitement ces besoins dans les milieux scolaires et professionnels. Deux tests simples, que les auteurs ont appelé « Pilote », ont servi à faire le classement des éléments fiables pour les analyses de corrélation entre les besoins. Puis, trois études ont été réalisées par la suite. La première étude eut l’objectif d’acquérir les concepts de départ appropriés en vue d’examiner l’assouvissement d’un besoin ou ce qui peut être contrariant. La deuxième étude vise à comparer les facteurs des sous-échelles de la mesure équilibrée des besoins psychologiques (BMPN) de Sheldon et Hilpert (2012) et l’échelle des besoins de satisfaction et de frustration (NSFS), adapté de Clark et Watson (1995). La troisième s’est présentée dans le but de savoir si la nouvelle échelle (NSFS) est admissible dans un contexte de travail.

La théorie des besoins fondamentaux de Deci et Ryan (1985, 2000) et Ryan et Deci (2002) est utilisée dans le cadre de cette recherche. À celle-ci se rattachent trois besoins psychologiques qui contribuent au bien-être de l’individu. L’autonomie conduit au mieux-être lorsque l’individu est libre de ses actions, la compétence laisse place à la satisfaction si la réussite et la compréhension des tâches sont atteintes et le besoin de relation est comblé en se combinant aux autres. Au départ, ces concepts ont été étudiés dans deux milieux différents; au travail et à l’université. Parmi les questions posées aux participants, certaines pouvaient être associées à deux concepts en même temps, dépendamment du contexte. Par exemple, la réponse du participant pouvait s’expliquer par l’autonomie et la compétence de celui-ci. Aussi, plusieurs échelles de mesure procuraient des réponses basées sur la satisfaction des besoins plutôt que sur la frustration. Par la suite, des corrections se sont faites et ont amené la construction de nouvelles échelles qui ont été utilisées au cours de cette recherche. Il y a l’échelle BMPN (Sheldon et Hilpert, 2012) et  NSFS (adapté de Clark et Watson, 1995) qui incluent des réponses de satisfaction et de frustration, puis l’échelle BNSW-S (Deci et al., 2001) qui obtient des réponses concernant l’environnement de travail.

 L’étude première eut un échantillon de 163 étudiants, tous de l’Université de Sussex et venant de différents domaines tels que la psychologie, le développement, l’économie et d’autres. L’âge moyen des candidats est de 23 ans. Chacun d’entre eux a été recruté par courriel électronique et sur les réseaux sociaux et a répondu au questionnaire en ligne. L’échelle utilisée pour l’étude a été le NSFS, adapté par Clark et Watson (1995), où l’analyse des 34 éléments étaient classés par besoin pour éviter les erreurs (Schriesheim, C. A., Solomon, E. et Kopelman, R. E., 1989). L’échantillon de la seconde étude fut semblable à la première, c’est-à-dire 356 étudiants d’environ 24 ans, venus de l’Université de Murdoch, dans différents programmes, recrutés de la même façon et questionnés en ligne. Toutefois, la présentation des facteurs du NSFS est comparée au BMPN (Sheldon et Hilpert, 2012) afin de retirer la meilleure échelle. L’analyse des besoins de satisfactions comportait 18 questions. La dernière étude a testé le NSFS dans un milieu professionnel, ainsi que le BNSW-S (Deci et al., 2001), jamais testé auparavant. 303 Américains ont répondu au questionnaire sur un site internet nommé Mechanical Turk (Buhrmester et al., 2011) et plusieurs aspects de leur profil ont été analysés exhaustivement. L’analyse des données séparait les échelles sur des pages différentes, mais dans un même ordre.

Les résultats de la première étude ont révélé que trois questions par sous-échelle (autonomie, compétence et relation) mesurant la satisfaction et la frustration étaient suffisantes à l’utilisation du NSFS. Lors de la deuxième étude, trois modèles de comparaison se sont ajoutés pour vérifier la justesse des échelles de mesure NSFS et BMPN. Un pour les facteurs de besoins corrélés, un pour les facteurs de valence de la satisfaction et de la frustration et un dernier pour mesurer la satisfaction et la frustration des trois besoins psychologiques. Après l’analyse de comparaison des facteurs, le NSFS résultait de meilleurs indices que l’échelle BMPN. Enfin, le besoin de satisfaction est utilisé pour mieux déterminer le bien-être et le besoin de frustration prédit mieux les sentiments désagréables. La troisième étude a révélé que le dernier modèle de comparaison résulte des indices plus justes pour les trois échelles. Toutefois, l’échelle NSFS fournirait des réponses préférables quant au BMPN et au BNSW-S. Les méthodes expérimentales ou longitudinales auraient pu être appliquées, de manière à ce que les données ne soient pas corrélées pour permettre la supposition de causes entre les tests. De plus, les premiers tests (Pilote 1 et 2) n’ont pas usé d’un échantillon assez élevé pour classer les éléments, ce qui aurait pu apporter des erreurs. Aussi, les échantillons d’étudiants et de professionnels ne semblent pas représenter la totalité de la population. Donc, des échantillons plus élevés et diversifier les cultures pourrait être plus représentatif. D’ailleurs, tester d’autres domaines de la vie en général outre l’éducation et le travail serait également intéressant pour mesurer la satisfaction et la frustration, car le BMPN était sujet à généraliser les résultats obtenus.

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 213 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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