Brève de recherche DDC – 2018 : Conseillers scolaires et efficacité personnelle (Katherina Isabelle-Tétreault)

BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Isabelle-Tétreault, Katherina (2018). Compte rendu de P.R. Mullen et G. Lambie, 2016, The contribution of school counselor’s self-efficacy to their programmatic service delivery. Psychology in the Schools. 53(3), 306-320.

 

La présente étude s’intéresse à l’écart entre les services du programme d’orientation, tels qu’ils sont définis par l’American School Counselor Association (ASCA), et ce qui est véritablement offert dans les écoles par les conseillers scolaires. La recherche s’établit en trois études sur une période de six mois. À cet effet, il importe d’identifier les facteurs pouvant améliorer l’application des services d’orientation. Il sera question de l’efficacité personnelle, cette croyance en nos habiletés d’effectuer et de persévérer dans une tâche vue comme difficile et qui influence notre motivation à agir. Selon une méta-analyse de Whiston, Tai, Rahardja et Eder (2011) et une recherche de Dimmitt et Wilkerson (2012) (cités dans Mullen et Lambie, 2016), on démontre que lorsque l’on établit des services de programme d’orientation efficaces en milieu scolaire, on observe une portée positive chez les étudiants.

L’étude concerne 693 conseillers scolaires du primaire aux États-Unis. En premier lieu, ils ont recruté les participants (N=220) lors d’une rencontre de conseillers scolaires. En deuxième lieu, 3000 participants ont reçu un sondage par courriel impliquant trois passations et suivant le « Tailored Design Method ». Aussi, la moitié des participants a reçu une incitation monétaire. En troisième lieu, un sondage par courriel en quatre temps a été envoyé aléatoirement à deux échantillons, soit aux membres de l’ASCA (n=300) et du Common Core of Data (n=300). Le tiers des participants (n=200) a reçu une incitation monétaire de 2$, un autre tiers une incitation de 1$ et le dernier tiers aucune. Il y avait 3 instruments de collecte de données par sondage : un questionnaire démographique (informations générales), la School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale (SCSE) constituée de 43 items et de l’échelle de Likert en 5 niveaux mesurant 5 facteurs de l’efficacité personnelle des conseillers scolaires. Et finalement, la School Counselor Activities Rating Scale (SCARS) constituée de 48 items et de l’échelle de Likert en 5 niveaux mesurant 4 facteurs d’intervention basés sur l’ASCA. De plus, la méthode du face-à-face a été choisie lors de la rencontre des conseillers scolaires.

Ce qui résulte de cette étude est un modèle structurel ayant comme variable exogène l’efficacité personnelle des conseillers et comme variable endogène la fréquence d’application des services de programme d’orientation. Lorsqu’un conseiller scolaire a un niveau élevé d’efficacité personnelle, cela se traduit par une meilleure implantation et un meilleur rendement des services du programme de l’ASCA. C’est-à-dire qu’exercer l’efficacité personnelle du conseiller permet d’augmenter la fréquence d’utilisation du service dans les écoles, résultant en impacts positifs chez les élèves. Le modèle établit une contribution forte et positive de l’efficacité personnelle des conseillers scolaires sur la fréquence à laquelle les conseillers offrent les services de programme d’orientation de l’ASCA dans les écoles primaires. On y voit que les scores obtenus à l’échelle SCSE contribuent à 48% de la variance des scores obtenus à l’échelle SCARS, c’est-à-dire que les résultats obtenus au SCARS sont expliqués à 48% par les résultats au SCSE. On met en évidence grâce à cette étude, que les 5 sous-échelles du SCSE, soit la collaboration, le développement social et personnel, le leadership, le développement académique et de carrière et l’acceptance culturelle déterminent et sont nécessaires à l’efficacité personnelle des conseillers. Aussi, le counseling et les activités de coordination, deux facteurs du SCARS, sont les éléments les plus importants quant à la réussite de l’implantation des services de programme d’orientation de l’ASCA dans les écoles, car ce sont les pratiques les plus courantes

Concernant les limites de la recherche, les données sont rapportées directement par les conseillers scolaires, ceci peut nuire à la qualité et la fiabilité des données. Par exemple, des biais peuvent être rencontrés, tel que la désirabilité sociale et met de côté le point de vue des élèves et d’autres corps scolaires. Finalement, l’étude ne tient pas compte des différences individuelles des participants qui peuvent influencer les résultats aux deux échelles.

 

RÉFÉRENCES

 

Dimmitt, C., & Wilkerson, B. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling in Rhode Island: Access to services and student outcomes. Professional School Counseling, 16, 125–135.

 

Whiston, S. C., Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcome: A meta-analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89, 37–55.

 

 

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 205 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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