Brève de recherche DDC-2018 : Décisions de carrière chez les expatriés (Delphine Siblot)

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BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Siblot, Delphine (2018). Compte rendu de V. Suutari, C. Tornikoski et L. Mäkelä, 2012, Career decision making of global careerists. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(16), 3455-3478.

Cette recherche vise à développer notre compréhension des choix professionnels des expatriés de carrière globale, qui cumulent de multiples missions à l’international. Elle analyse les facteurs valorisés par ces derniers dans la relation de travail et identifie les éléments qui impactent leur décision de maintenir ou rompre leur lien d’emploi et qui contribuent à leurs choix de carrière futurs. Cette recherche s’appuie sur des études antérieures, qui se limitent traditionnellement à l’analyse de retours d’expatriation ou de données d’employeurs en prise avec la difficile gestion de la mobilité internationale. Pour permettre une approche globale plus équilibrée, elle intègre une étude qualitative qui s’intéresse, cette fois, à l’expérience d’expatriés de longue durée et aux facteurs qu’ils perçoivent comme décisifs dans leur choix de carrière.

Les auteurs analysent les décisions de carrière des expatriés à travers la théorie de l’échange social (Blau 1964). Selon cette théorie, toute interaction humaine ou sociale, telle la relation employeur-employé, est motivée par un retour spécifique attendu, tangible ou non tangible, de la part des parties impliquées, en contrepartie de leur contribution mutuelle. La notion de retour est donc centrale. Ainsi, les auteurs considèrent une carrière globale comme un ensemble d’échanges sociaux, intégrés dans un contexte international, qui suivent la propre logique professionnelle des expatriés. Les auteurs se réfèrent ici au principe de « carrière protéenne » (Hall 1996), qui consiste pour un individu à gérer ses propres choix de carrière selon ses valeurs personnelles. Cette approche est utilisée par les auteurs pour analyser et identifier les types de retours que les expatriés valorisent dans leurs décisions professionnelles.

L’étude a été menée selon une méthode de recherche qualitative, à partir d’entrevues semi-structurées réalisées auprès de 5 femmes et 15 hommes, âgés de 35 à 64 ans et ayant travaillé en moyenne plus de 15 ans à l’étranger. L’échantillon provient d’une étude quantitative plus large qui ciblait les membres expatriés de l’organisme Finnish Union for Master of Science of Economics. Les données ont été recueillies en 2008 par des entretiens téléphoniques en Finlandais, utilisant des questions ouvertes. Deux entretiens pilotes furent menés préalablement pour tester la méthodologie. Les informations, retranscrites mot pour mot, ont été traduites en anglais par les auteurs et centralisées dans une base de données, dont le contenu a été analysé par réplication logique. Pour assurer la validité et la fiabilité de l’étude, l’analyse des données brutes a reposé sur la triangulation des chercheurs. De plus, les données des entrevues ont été comparées entre elles et croisées avec les résultats de recherches antérieures.

Les résultats montrent que les expatriés de carrière globale déterminent leurs choix professionnels avant tout sur des retours motivationnels intangibles (le sens et la nature de l’emploi, les défis, l’autonomie), les contreparties financières telles les primes apparaissant comme secondaires dans leur prise de décision. Par ailleurs, la recherche permet d’identifier cinq facteurs qui expliquent la volatilité professionnelle des expatriés de carrière globale : l’instabilité propres aux milieux d’affaires opérant à l’international (fusions, restructurations), le caractère temporaire des carrières à l’étranger (missions, projets), les opportunités d’emploi issues de leur réseau professionnel mondial et enfin, le manque de défi professionnel et la baisse de qualité de vie en cas de retour au pays. Toutefois, quatre leviers contribuent à la rétention et à la mobilisation des expatriés tout en favorisant leur carrière internationale : les opportunités d’emploi à l’interne intégrant des enjeux internationaux, les possibilités de développement professionnel, la capacité de l’employeur à bien gérer la mobilité internationale et les risques liés au changement d’employeurs. Toutefois, ces conclusions comportent des limites : tout d’abord, elles gagneraient à être comparées à des études portant sur les choix professionnels de travailleurs traditionnels domestiques. Ensuite, il est difficile de généraliser des résultats qui portent sur un petit échantillon, provenant d’un seul pays. Enfin, les recherches devraient intégrer une plus grande variété d’expériences internationales.

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A propos de Louis Cournoyer 208 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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