BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 : Éducation et soutien des parents en regard du choix de carrière (Suzie Paquette)

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BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Paquette, Suzie (2018). Compte rendu de H.N. Suh et L.Y. Flores, 2017, Relative deprivation and career decision self-efficacy: influences of self-regulation and parental educational attainment. The career development quarterly, 65, 145-158.

Presque 70% des femmes coréennes poursuivent des études post-secondaire, la majorité accédant à des études universitaires mais occupent plus tard des postes inférieurs aux hommes et font face à des difficultés d’ordre de genre. Entre autres, les conflits quant aux métiers non-traditionnels, les plafonds de verres (où les elles peuvent progresser dans la hiérarchie d’une entreprise mais jusqu’à un certain niveau seulement), la discrimination et la différence de salaire à travail égal entre elles et les hommes. Cette étude examine la privation relative (un sentiment d’insatisfaction résultant d’une comparaison défavorable), à chances égales, et ses effets sur le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle (croyances d’une personne sur sa capacité à atteindre ses buts) relié au travail. L’hypothèse qu’on tente de vérifier est la corrélation entre l’efficacité du choix de carrière, le degré d’éducation atteint par les parents et les différents degrés de support parental.

Une étude fut réalisée auprès de 603 coréennes étudiantes de Corée du Sud. Un questionnaire a été distribué et il a été répondu en environ 15 minutes par toutes les étudiantes. Il comprenait des questions mesurant le degré de privation relative, se basant sur l’échelle de privation relative créée par Chae et Kim (2004), d’autres sur l’autocontrôle tirés de la version coréenne du questionnaire créé par Park, Lee et Hong (2005) et Ryan (2004), d’autres sur l’efficacité du choix de carrière basées sur la version coréenne de l’échelle d’efficacité du choix de carrière créé par Betz, Klein et Taylor (1996) et Lee et Lee (2000) et finalement, des questions d’ordre démographique portant sur le degré d’éducation des parents utilisant la classification internationale type de l’éducation de l’UNESCO (1975, 1978, 1997 et 2011). Toutes ces données, sauf les questions démographiques sur le niveau atteint d’éducation des parents, ont été mesurées à l’aide du coefficient alpha de Cronbach (1951) et se sont avérées concluantes.

L’analyse de ces données a, premièrement, déterminé deux groupes. Le premier, comprenant 284 répondantes, sont celles dont les deux parents ont atteint un niveau supérieur d’éducation. Le deuxième, composé de 319 étudiantes, sont celles dont les parents n’ont pas dépassé les études secondaires. Les auteurs ont finalement analysé les effets de l’autocontrôle sur la privation relative et le choix de carrière diffèrent dépendamment du degré d’éducation des parents.

Les résultats de cette étude démontrent que le groupe dont les parents ont atteint des études supérieures a un plus haut niveau d’autocontrôle et sont plus efficientes dans leur choix de carrière. Chez celles dont les parents n’ont pas atteint un haut niveau d’études, on a pu dénoter un plus haut niveau de privation relative. Le groupe d’études de niveau supérieur a démontré une corrélation positive entre la privation relative et l’autocontrôle et entre l’autocontrôle et un choix de carrière efficace. Il n’y a cependant pas eu de corrélation significative entre la privation relative et le choix de carrière efficace. Le groupe de bas niveau d’études a démontré une corrélation négative entre la privation relative et l’efficacité du choix de carrière et une corrélation positive entre l’autocontrôle et l’efficacité du choix de carrière. Indépendamment du degré de scolarité atteint par les parents, une corrélation positive entre l’autocontrôle et un choix de carrière efficace a donc été observé.

Les auteurs ont par conséquent pu conclure que la privation relative affecte l’efficacité du choix de carrière des étudiantes coréennes et que l’autocontrôle vient médier cette relation. L’effet de cette médiation diffère dépendamment du degré de scolarité atteint par les parents, et donc, les interventions des conseillers d’orientation concernant l’autocontrôle pour contrecarrer les effets de la privation relative devraient différer aussi.

Cette étude croisée ne permet cependant pas de déterminer les liens de cause à effet. Aussi, les données amassées concernant le niveau d’étude des parents ont été recueillies par les étudiantes et peuvent très bien être biaisées. De plus, cette étude n’inclut pas de cas de familles monoparentales et ne concerne qu’un échantillon d’étudiantes collégiales de Corée.

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 208 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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