Brève de recherche DDC-2018 : épuisement, maladie, absentéisme … effets de demandes et de ressources (Silvia Cruz Benitez)

fatigue

Image récupérée de https://pixabay.com/fr/photos/fatigue/

 

 

BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Cruz Benitez, Silvia (2018). Compte rendu de C. Consiglio, L. Borgogni, G. Alessandri et W.-B. Schaufeli, 2013, Does self-efficacy matter for burnout and sickness absenteeism? The mediating role of demands and resources at the individual and team levels. Work & Stress 27(1), 22-42.

Traditionnellement, la littérature a mis en évidence le rôle des caractéristiques du travail comme des antécédents du «burnout». Cependant, la contribution de facteurs individuels tels que l’efficacité personnelle a été moins étudiée et, pourtant, elle pourrait être une prédicatrice du «burnout». (Maslach, Schaufeli, et Leiter, 2001).

Dans ce sens, cette recherche a pour objectif de déterminer deux aspects. Dans un premier temps, elle vise à explorer à quel niveau l’efficacité personnelle au travail est liée au «burnout», c’est-à-dire le rôle actif de l’individu dans le façonnement de son environnement de travail (Bandura, 1986). Ensuite, elle explore comment le «burnout» peut prédire le taux d’absentéisme pour raison de maladie au sein de l’équipe. Dans ce sens, l’étude se concentre sur les individus placés en équipe et en explique simultanément les effets sur le plan individuel et aussi en équipe. À l’aide d’une équation structurelle à plusieurs niveaux, les chercheurs ont prédit que les croyances d’efficacité au travail seraient en corrélation directe et indirecte avec le «burnout» par les demandes de l’emploi et ses ressources, sur le plan individuel et en équipe. De surcroît, ils prédisaient qu’en ce qui concerne l’équipe, le nombre d’absences dû à une maladie serait relié avec le «burnout».

Les auteurs se basent sur le Job Demands-Resources Model, (JD-R, Demerouti et al.,2001) pour avoir une meilleure connaissance du processus d’un « burnout ». Il est défini comme un syndrome de stress chronique qui a deux dimensions principales, soit le cynisme et l’épuisement, qui est un état de fatigue non seulement physique, mais aussi mentale et émotionnelle ( Schaufeli et Taris, 2005). La contrainte interpersonnelle, définie comme le sentiment d’inconfort et de désengagement dans les relations avec les personnes au travail, résultant d’une pression et de demandes excessives au travail fut ajoutée comme une troisième dimension qui serait reliée directement au «burnout» (Borgogni, Consiglio et Schaufeli, 2012). De plus, ils se réfèrent à la Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Bandura, 1986) pour expliquer que le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est la croyance qu’une personne a en ses capacités de maitriser un domaine spécifique, dans le but d’accomplir quelque chose. Tout en continuant à se fier au JD-R, ils définissent les demandes de l’emploi comme l’aspect du travail qui requiert un effort physique et mental, tandis que les ressources de l’emploi sont les aspects qui réduisent les demandes de l’emploi et qui stimulent l’apprentissage et le développement, au travail. De surcroît, ils utilisent Darr et Johns (2008), qui définissent l’absence due à une maladie comme étant le fait de ne pas se présenter au travail pour une raison de maladie, un phénomène influencé par plusieurs facteurs.

La recherche effectuée en Italie en 2010, a été réalisée auprès de 5407 agents du centre d’appels travaillant pour une des plus grandes compagnies européennes de gérance de service. Le taux de réponse a été de 79%. L’échantillon était composé de 69% de femmes.La grande majorité de répondants (54%) se situait entre 26-35 ans. La taille moyenne de l’échantillon des équipes était de 25.45. La collecte de données a été effectuée à l’aide d’un questionnaire qui a été donné anonymement à chaque participant. À l’aide de la théorie de Bandura (Bandura, 2006), huit entrevues ont été effectuées auprès des agents du centre d’appels pour identifier les défis et les empêchements qui caractérisent leur travail. La Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) a été utilisée pour mesurer les composants de l’efficacité personnelle. Les données sur les absences de maladie ont été obtenues par le registre de la compagnie sur une période de huit mois, en commençant un mois après que les questionnaires ont été distribués.

Les résultats de la recherche révèlent que sur le plan individuel, le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est relié positivement aux ressources de l’emploi, mais négativement aux demandes de l’emploi. De plus, les demandes de l’emploi ont une corrélation positive avec le «burnout», tandis que les ressources de l’emploi ont une corrélation négative. Ce qui veut dire que les demandes de l’emploi ont un impact direct sur le «burnout», confirmant un risque potentiel, dans le centre d’appels. Les équipes ayant un haut niveau de «burnout» présentent aussi un haut niveau d’absence dû à une maladie avec une variance de 31%. De surcroît, dans les équipes, le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle est en corrélation négative avec les demandes de l’emploi et aussi les ressources de l’emploi qui, elles, sont en corrélation avec le « burnout ». Pour terminer, deux limites majeures dans l’étude ont été soulevées. Tout d’abord, les mesures qui ont été étudiées, à l’exception de l’absence au travail dû à une maladie, étaient des mesures transversales qui peuvent produire des inférences causales dans l’étude. Ensuite, l’absence due à une maladie était étudiée seulement sur les équipes et il n’a pu être testé que sur une personne, ce qui pourrait, dans le futur, être une nouvelle porte de recherche.

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 210 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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