Brève de recherche DDC-2018 : Épuisement professionnel et satisfaction au travail chez les formateurs de conseillers (Cassandre Potvin)

 

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BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Potvin, Cassandre (2018). Compte rendu de V.F. Sangganjanavanich et R.S. Balkin, 2013, Burnout and job satisfaction among counselor educators. Journal of Humanistic Counseling Association, 52(1), 67-79. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2013.00033.x

Le fait que peu de recherches portent sur la relation entre le niveau de satisfaction au travail et l’épuisement professionnel chez les conseillers en éducation indique la pertinence scientifique de cet article. Cette étude a pour objectif de mieux comprendre le bien-être personnel et professionnel. Pour ce faire, elle vise à décrire trois différents types de relations: la première représente le niveau d’épuisement professionnel relatif à la satisfaction au travail chez les conseillers en éducation, la deuxième relation étudiée est celle entre le niveau d’épuisement professionnel et les facteurs démographiques. Enfin, la dernière relation approfondit le niveau de satisfaction au travail relié aux facteurs démographiques chez cette population.

L’épuisement professionnel est défini comme étant une sorte spécifique de stress lié au travail (Freudenberger, 1974; Maslach, 1976). Il est aussi un syndrome de dépersonnalisation, d’épuisement émotionnel et d’une réduction de l’accomplissement personnel qui survient chez des individus travaillant en contact avec d’autres personnes selon Maslach, Jackson, et Leiter (1996). La dépersonnalisation est décrite comme un manque d’empathie et une présence d’émotions et de pensées négatives à propos de soi tandis que l’épuisement émotionnel signifie une carence émotionnelle et physique.  L’accomplissement personnel réfère à la satisfaction et l’appréciation d’un emploi. Les facteurs qui influencent les conseillers en éducation à rester membre de la faculté, établis par Leinbaugh et al. (2003), sont le contrôle organisationnel, le contrôle interne et les récompenses ainsi que la gestion du temps et des efforts. Ces caractéristiques influencent la satisfaction au travail. Le contrôle organisationnel est représenté par les politiques en milieu de travail tandis que le contrôle interne et les récompenses s’expliquent entre autres par l’appui des collègues. Le dernier aspect se définit par un équilibre entre les besoins personnels et professionnels.

Les 220 participants de l’étude sont des conseillers en éducation à temps plein résidant aux États-Unis et sont des membres de l’Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. La majorité des individus sont des femmes et la moyenne d’âge de l’échantillon est de 46.95 ans. La moyenne d’ancienneté des conseillers est de 8,53 années. Leurs origines sont variées, toutefois il y a une très grande proportion de Caucasiens. Les participants ont été contactés électroniquement via Counselor Education and Supervision Network afin de les inviter à participer à la recherche ainsi qu’à répondre à des questions démographiques en plus du questionnaire Burnout Inventory–Educators Survey (MBI-ES) de Maslach et al. (1996) et de celui développé par Spector (1985), le Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). Le MBI-ES a comme sujet l’épuisement professionnel dont un des aspects est l’épuisement émotionnel tandis que le JSS porte sur la mesure de la satisfaction au travail.

L’étude démontre qu’une relation est clairement établie entre l’épuisement professionnel et la satisfaction au travail: plus le niveau d’épuisement émotif est élevé, plus la satisfaction au travail diminue chez les conseillers en éducation. Le facteur qui contribue le plus à la diminution de la satisfaction au travail serait le niveau d’épuisement émotif. Il représente 11% de la variance dans la satisfaction au travail. Cela suggère qu’afin de s’assurer que les employés soient en mesure de surmonter le stress lié aux attentes professionnelles, les employeurs devraient s’intéresser à leurs capacités émotionnelles. De plus, l’épuisement professionnel est négativement corrélé avec la satisfaction au travail chez les conseillers en éducation. Aussi, il n’y aurait pas de relation significative entre le niveau d’épuisement professionnel et les aspects démographiques (âge, sexe, ancienneté du conseiller). Ces éléments n’ont pas plus de corrélation avec la satisfaction au travail. Toutefois, il faut porter attention à l’échantillon de l’étude avant d’appliquer les résultats à toutes les populations. Les participants étaient en majorité des conseillères en éducation qui sont des femmes caucasiennes, les minorités ethniques sont également sous représentées dans l’échantillon.

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 208 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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