Brève de recherche DDC-2018 : Événements de vie et décisions de carrière (Manon Brunet)

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BRÈVE DE RECHERCHE DDC – 2018 

Sous la direction de LOUIS COURNOYER

Professeur-chercheur, conseiller d’orientation, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dans le cadre du cours CAR 2901 – Introduction au développement de carrière, les personnes étudiantes des programmes de majeure et de baccalauréat en développement de carrière furent invités à produire un résumé de lecture à partir d’un document scientifique rattaché à leur champ professionnel. Nous en présentons quelques-uns dans une série intitulée “Brève de recherche DDC – 2018”. Bravo à tous ces étudiantes-auteures et ces étudiants-auteurs qui en sont pour la plupart à leur première publication.

Pour citer ce résumé:

Brunet, Manon (2018). Compte rendu de A. Hirschi et D. Valero, 2017, Chance events and career decidedness: latent profiles in relation to work motivation. The Career Development Quarterly, 65(1), 2-15.

 

Cette recherche vise à explorer la relation entre la perception d’évènements fortuits et les décisions de carrière en lien avec la motivation au travail chez les adolescents en formation. Être ouvert aux opportunités inattendues et tirer profit de celles-ci est souvent présenté comme l’opposé de la vision traditionnelle en développement de carrière qui valorise d’être décidé dans ses plans de carrière. Des recherches empiriques ont suggéré que les évènements fortuits vécus affectent les décisions de carrière (Bright et al. (2009), Bright et al. (2005), Hirschi (2010), Williams et al. (1998)). D’autres recherches ont suggéré que ce sont les caractéristiques internes comme le locus de contrôle, la confiance en soi et l’ouverture à l’expérience ainsi que les caractéristiques externes comme les barrières ou le support social qui affectent la perception des évènements fortuits (Bright et al. (2005), Hirschi (2010), Williams et al. (1998)). Enfin, une seule étude empirique (Hirschi, 2010) a démontré l’absence de corrélation significative entre les décisions de carrière et la perception des évènements fortuits mais l’inconvénient de cette approche centrée sur les variables est qu’elle explore seulement la moyenne d’un échantillon et ce n’est pas significatif pour comprendre le lien entre ces deux facteurs. Il est possible qu’un emploi obtenu par la chance donne des résultats négatifs concernant l’engagement au travail parce que cela ne correspond pas aux aspirations originales de l’individu. Cependant Hirschi en 2010 découvre que la perception de chance est significativement reliée à la satisfaction des adolescents suisses. Ces liens n’ont donc pas été suffisamment explorés antérieurement. En contraste avec les études précédentes centrées sur les variables, cette exploration par une approche centrée sur la personne assume qu’il y a différents profils de perception de chance et décision afin d’explorer comment ces profils diffèrent en lien avec la motivation au travail. L’étude a été menée auprès d’adolescents qui sont considérés à une étape cruciale d’exploration, d’ouverture d’esprit et de curiosité alors qu’au même moment ils doivent développer de l’autodétermination, le sens du contrôle et être responsable de leurs carrières. Cela implique que les résultantes de la chance et des décisions seront critiques à cette étape de vie.

La première question visait à savoir s’il y a des profils qualitativement et quantitativement différents en termes de perception des évènements fortuits et de décisions de carrière. La deuxième question visait à vérifier s’il existe une différence significative entre les personnes aux profils distincts chance/décisions dans leur motivation au travail. La collecte de données a été effectuée électroniquement par questionnaires durant les heures de classe auprès de 312 suisses, en majorité d’origine suisse (53%), dont l’âge moyen est de 17.92 ans avec un écart-type de 1.92. Ils étaient dans leur première année de formation et travail, dans dix écoles et dans 26 domaines différents. L’information recueillie visait à évaluer chez ceux-ci, par les items de différentes échelles, la perception des évènements fortuits (Bright et al. (2005)), l’identité vocationnelle (Vocational Identity Scale of My Vocational Situation (Holland et al., 1980; Jorin et al., 2004)), l’auto-efficacité occupationnelle (German Short Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale (Rigotti et al., 2008)), l’ajustement personne-travail (Saks et Ashforth (2002)) et l’engagement au travail (Short Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli et al., 2006)).

Les analyses multivariées utilisant l’analyse de profil latent avec Mplus 7 (Muthén et Muthén, (2012)) ont démontrés des profils qualitativement et quantitativement différents en termes de perception des évènements fortuits et de décision de carrière chez les adolescents en formation (les indécis chanceux, les indécis moins chanceux, les décidés chanceux, les décidés moins chanceux et les personnes balancées). Ces résultats confirment ainsi l’utilité de l’approche centrée sur la personne. De plus, les trois variables de motivation (auto-efficacité occupationnelle, ajustement personne-travail et engagement au travail) diffèrent significativement au travers des cinq profils et confirment qu’il y a des différences dans leur motivation au travail sans que la perception des évènements fortuits et les décisions de carrière ne soient nécessairement des opposées dans la motivation. Les groupes avec les patrons de variables de motivations les plus favorables sont les décidés avec ou sans chance qui diffèrent beaucoup des autres groupes. Bien que le fait d’être ouvert et de croire à la chance puisse sembler être le contraire de la motivation et d’un plan de carrière décidé, l’influence peut être une conjoncture ou être indépendante et cela varie selon les individus. Cependant, la recherche a été effectuée sur une seule source, à un seul moment et d’autres recherches seraient nécessaires pour généraliser aux autres populations. Finalement, tant qu’un individu a un haut niveau de décisions de carrière, c’est-à-dire qu’il a une vision claire de ses intérêts, préférences et objectifs de carrière, son ouverture aux évènements ne s’opposera pas à sa motivation au travail et il serait utile que les conseillers de carrière la considèrent favorablement dans leurs interventions.

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 208 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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