Entre relations sociales et projet professionnel : la force des liens

 

Article publié et disponible sur le site ORIENTACTION. Vous y trouverez d’ailleurs de très bons et courts (ce qu’apprécient souvent les praticiens très occupés) articles en développement de carrière et orientation professionnelle. Si vous souhaitez consulter la thèse de Louis Cournoyer de laquelle a été produit cet article, vous pouvez le faire sur le site de l’ÉRTA en cliquant ICI.
Entre relations sociales et projet professionnel: la force des liens.
L’entrée aux études collégiales se déroule généralement entre l’âge de 17 et 23 ans. C’est également à cette période que les liens de sociabilité sont les plus nombreux et les plus rapidement changeants qu’ils peuvent l’être tout au long de la vie (Bidart, Mounier et Pélissier, 2002). Une étude longitudinale menée pendant 18 mois auprès d’une centaine de collégiens provenant de trois cégeps (Bourdon, Charbonneau, Cournoyer et Lapostolle, 2007) révèle que le réseau social1 moyen d’un collégien varie considérablement d’un jeune à l’autre, allant de moins de 10 à plus de 100 personnes. Ces réseaux semblent procurer plusieurs types de soutien aux collégiens en recherche d’une orientation professionnelle : discussions, encouragements, conseils, rétroactions, information, aide directe, ressources matérielles et financières. Toutes les relations des jeunes n’ont évidemment pas le même rôle.

 

La force des liens

Les travaux de Granovetter (1973, 1983) ont mis en lumière les notions de liens « forts » et de liens « faibles ». Les liens forts sont ceux que l’on entretient avec des personnes proches de nous tant physiquement qu’affectueusement. Il s’agit plus souvent qu’autrement de parents, d’amis et de connaissances, de relations amoureuses, de quelques collègues de classe ou de travail avec qui l’on dévoile une partie plus intime de nous-mêmes. Ces liens forts se caractérisent par une forte proximité géographique et affective, le partage de cercles sociaux communs, ainsi que de valeurs, de croyances et de ressources communes. Les personnes partageant des liens forts tendent à se protéger et se valider entre elles, moins à se confronter. En contrepartie, les liens faibles s’associent aux relations plus éloignées en distance et intimité affective. Tel que le souligne Erickson (2004), « bien que les individus ont tendance à s’associer à des personnes avec qui ils ont le plus d’affinités, ce sont les personnes plus loin de nous, avec qui nous entretenons des liens plus faibles, qui risquent le plus de disposer des différents types de ressources que nous n’avons pas nous-mêmes » (Erickson, 2004, p. 12). Les liens faibles constituent de véritables connexions vers de nouveaux réseaux sociaux.
L’examen de 125 réseaux sociaux a permis à Kalish et Robins (2005) de constater que les personnes se percevant comme vulnérables aux forces extérieures tendent à entretenir un réseau restreint au plan des liens faibles, alors que les personnes cherchant à maintenir une forte concentration de liens forts tendent quant à elles à être individualistes, à croire qu’elles contrôlent les événements dans leur vie et à être davantage névrosées. De leur coté, Charbonneau et Turcotte (2002) ont remarqué que plusieurs recherches en médecine et en psychologie confirment l’effet considérable des réseaux sociaux sur le bien-être psychologique et physique. Également, Bernier (1997) a observé que les jeunes se définissent fortement par l’intensité de leurs interactions familiales, amicales et amoureuses, ainsi que par l’importance qu’y revêtent l’échange et la communication à cette phase de construction de l’identité. Pour Bidart, Lavenu et Pellissier (2005), la configuration relationnelle des réseaux sociaux contribue à la définition de projets individuels.
Une thèse articulant relations sociales et projet professionnel
Ce texte rapporte quelques-uns des résultats de ma thèse de doctorat (Cournoyer, 2008), laquelle s’inscrit dans le projet de recherche Famille, réseaux et persévérance au collégial (Bourdon et Charbonneau, 2004-2006). À partir de l’analyse des propos de 74 collégiens rencontrés à trois reprises (durée : 2 heures) sur la question du projet, j’ai pu observer différentes manifestations du rôle de certaines personnes avec qui les collégiens entretiennent des relations sociales lorsqu’il est question du projet professionnel : parents, fratrie, famille étendue, amis, relations amoureuses, ressources professionnelles du collège, autres personnes significatives.
Les résultats
Les résultats suggèrent tout d’abord que les relations familiales (parents, fratrie, famille étendue) exercent un rôle de préparation et de facilitation vers le monde du travail2. Les relations parentales participent à un mouvement de convergence par des actions de soutien orientées vers la prise de décisions sécuritaires axées sur un placement en emploi « réussi » selon des standards sociaux et familiaux. De leur coté, les membres de la fratrie (généralement les aînés) apportent une aide et des informations éclairantes sur les étapes socioprofessionnelles à venir : université, marché du travail. Quant à la famille étendue, elle peut jouer un rôle complémentaire, parfois substitutif à celui des parents, par l’accès à des ressources privilégiées et valorisées par les jeunes.
Les relations hors famille favorisent l’ouverture sur d’autres possibles. Véritable contre-balancier aux relations parentales, les relations amicales procurent aux jeunes un espace de réflexion sur de nouvelles perspectives sans risque de désapprobation. Les amis valident, encouragent, mais confrontent peu. Quant aux relations amoureuses, jugées sérieuses, elles procurent une écoute disponible, chaleureuse et intéressée. Les projets individuels des partenaires tendent fréquemment à se fusionner en un projet global de couple : suivre ou ne pas suivre l’autre; choisir un même programme ou lieu d’études; s’adapter aux projets de l’autre.
Les relations hors réseau favorisent quant à elles la navigation vers d’autres mondes. Les ressources professionnelles du cégep (enseignants, c.o., API et autres) sont avant tout sollicitées à l’initiative des jeunes pour jouer un rôle de réponse ponctuelle et utilitaire pour fins d’éclairage ou encore d’aide prescriptive : aide à la navigation immédiate au sein du système scolaire et professionnel, avis d’expérience et de compétence, aide à la mobilisation de soi, présence rassurante de ressources disponibles en cas de besoin. Enfin, d’autres personnes hors du collège participent au développement et à la validation de référents identitaires pour les jeunes: autres professionnels, partenaires de sports et de loisirs, collègues de travail et patrons.
Lors de l’analyse des données, il a pu être observé que certains collégiens réalisent des actions concrètement dirigées sur la construction de leur projet professionnel (ex. : exploration, compréhension et confrontation de soi et du marché du travail, stratégies adaptatives pour contrer les obstacles et les difficultés), alors que d’autres apparaissent inactifs (état et/ou mouvement de retenue volontaire, d’insouciance, de confusion ou d’impuissance). Autant la présence de démarches s’accompagne d’un rationnel, autant il en est de même pour les jeunes en état d’absence de démarches. Le graphique I propose une répartition des jeunes en état de démarches et en état d’absence de démarches lorsqu’il est question de la construction de leur projet professionnel avec les différentes personnes avec qui ils entretiennent des relations sociales.
L’analyse du graphique 1 suggère que certaines relations sociales sont plus prépondérantes que d’autres au moment d’actions concrètement dirigées sur la construction de leur projet professionnel. C’est notamment le cas dans l’ordre des ressources professionnelles des collèges (PCo), des autres personnes significatives (Aut) et des membres de la famille étendue (FE). Ceux-ci semblent donc associés à une fonction de mobilisation des jeunes à l’égard de la construction de leur projet professionnel. Il est ainsi possible de constater que ces personnes s’associent fortement aux caractéristiques de liens faibles : moindre intensité et intimité, accès à de nouvelles perspectives, ressources et informations. En contrepartie, d’autres relations apparaissent plus présentes en période d’absence de démarches : parents (P), fratrie (F), amis et relations amoureuses (AA). Ces personnes sont clairement associées à des liens forts au sens où elles sont des relations proches et intimes, exprimées au sein d’un même groupe ou cercle social partageant ses valeurs et ses croyances, agissant davantage par un soutien chaleureux, aidant, encourageant, validant qu’en tant que mobilisation d’actions vers de nouvelles perspectives, informations et ressources.
Conclusion
Les différentes relations sociales des collégiens exercent différents rôles lorsqu’il est question de la construction de leur projet professionnel. Plus particulièrement, certains semblent agir à ces moments comme acteurs de mobilisation, alors que d’autres semblent plutôt jouer un rôle d’acteurs de soutien. Alors que les premiers présentent les caractéristiques de liens faibles (ouverture sur de nouvelles perspectives, occasions, informations et ressources), les deuxièmes présentent plutôt les caractéristiques de liens forts (protection, affection, validation, écoute, normalisation des valeurs, etc.). Tous deux semblent ainsi jouer des rôles complémentaires, tous deux nécessaires à la construction et l’évolution des projets professionnels des jeunes. Mais qu’arrive-t-il lorsque se présente un déséquilibre important chez les jeunes quant à l’accès au soutien de liens forts et de liens faibles, voir même lorsque la situation s’avère déficitaire sur les deux plans ? Les résultats de cette recherche invitent les professionnels de l’orientation et de l’éducation à se questionner sur le rôle des relations sociales de leurs propres clientèles au regard de questions d’impasses décisionnelles, de difficultés scolaires ou encore d’inadaptation psychosociale.
Bonne journée.
Louis
A propos de Louis Cournoyer 212 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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  68. Ernest Quintana, 78, was at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in Fremont when a doctor – appearing on the robot’s screen – informed him that he would die within a few days.

    A family friend wrote on social media that it was “not the way to show value and compassion to a patient“.

    The hospital says it “regrets falling short” of the family’s expectations.

    Mr Quintana died the next day.

  69. These three figures — William Rick Singer, Mark Riddell and Rudolph Meredith, respectively — are at the center of the nationwide scandal in which 33 parents are accused of using their wealth and means to help their children game the college admissions system.
    But those three names do not appear anywhere in the complaint text, though the document gives enough clues to make clear who is who. Instead, they are named as Cooperating Witness 1, 2 and 3, and each agreed to plead guilty and to cooperate with the government in the hope of obtaining leniency when they are sentenced, the complaint says.

  70. Trump was surrounded at Friday’s event by officials from Customs and Border Protection as well as surviving family members of those who have loved ones killed by undocumented immigrants. Attorney General William Barr was also at the President’s veto event.
    While some lawmakers including some Republicans — have argued against the President’s use of national emergency powers in this instance, the Justice Department set forth a robust defense of the President’s authority to do so in a letter to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell earlier this month, according to a copy obtained by CNN on Friday.
    “The President acted well within his discretion in declaring a national emergency concerning the southern border,” wrote Assistant Attorney General Stephen Boyd, setting out the legal basis for the proclamation under the National Emergencies Act and additional statutory authorities, which largely tracks an internal memo issued by the Office of Legal Counsel at the Justice Department.

  71. Want to star in your favorite memes and movie scenes? Upload a selfie to Morphin/a>, choose your favorite GIF and your face is grafted in to create a personalized copy you can share anywhere. Become Tony Stark as he suits up like Iron Man. Drop the mic like Obama, dance like Drake or slap your mug on Fortnite characters.

    Now after three years in stealth developing image-mapping technology, Morphin is ready to launch its put-you-in-a-GIF maker. While it might look like just a toy, investors see real business potential. Morphin raised $1 million last summer from Betaworks, the incubator that spawned Giphy, plus Founders Fund, Precursor, Shrug Capital and Boost.vc’s accelerator.

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