Impulsivité, stratégies adaptatives et … counseling de carrière

Louis Cournoyer, Ph.D., c.o. (2013)
Image titre récupérée de : https://pixabay.com/fr/bouclier-caract%C3%A8res-panique-la-peur-114440/

 

Je rends compte ici de notes de recherche recueillies par rapport à la question d’impulsivité chez les personnes selon différentes situations de transition personnelle. Il ne s’agit là que de notes éparses et le propos ne se veut aucunement exhaustif pour être considéré à titre de recension d’écrits. Je propose ici un bref compte rendu de deux études que j’ai parcouru en lien avec l’impulsivité et ses effets, puis je tenterai de proposer des pistes de réflexion et d’actions pour l’intervention en orientation.

 

Une recherche conduite en 2010 par Julia Hislaire de l’Université de Genève intitulée Lien entre processus d’autocontrôle, impulsivité et régulation émotionnelle: l’implication de l’hypothèse du « Gateway »m’apparaît intéressante pour aborder quelques outils conceptuels à notre pratique. Entre autres, l’idée ici est de voir comment les individus peuvent-ils faire face de manière efficace à une situation nouvelle et quels sont les processus (construction, mise en place et contrôle de schémas temporaires) ? L’impulsivité se rattache selon Hislaire (201) à des enjeux d’urgence, de manque de persévérance, de préméditation et de recherche de sensation.  L’urgence renvoie à de fortes impulsions souvent caractéristiques chez les personnes dépressives, anxieuses, dépendantes à des substances, personnalités limites, aux prises avec un déficit d’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité et antisociable. La préméditation relative à la prise en compte des conséquences de ses actes est plus faible chez les personnes impulsives. La personne impulsive éprouve également une faible persévérance pour l’attention, l’engagement et la réalisation de tâches de la vie quotidienne. Enfin, l’impulsivité s’associe fréquemment au désir de vivre des expériences à haute teneur d’intensité aux effets immédiats et donc, d’être plus compulsives dans leurs décisions et leurs actions.

 

Une autre recherche, qui en apparence, semble aller dans un autre thème que ce propos Hislaire concerne Une étude conduite par des chercheurs de la Georgia University suggère un lien entre personnalité impulsive et dépendance alimentaire. En somme, la dépendance alimentaire, comme toute autre forme de dépendance, est avant tout un enjeu d’impulsivité et de contrôle émotionnel. Les résultats suggèrent que les comportements impulsifs ne sont pas toujours rattachés à un enjeu de surpoids, d’indice plus élevé de la masse corporelle (IMC), mais qu’elle s’associe à une relation de compulsion avec la nourriture, le plus souvent avec des aliments plus ou moins sains.  De la même manière que pour la dépendance aux drogues, la dépendance à la nourriture s’associe à une libération significative de dopamine suite à l’injection d’aliments ou de plats désirés.  L’un des chercheurs rattachés à cette étude, le psychologue clinicien Dr James MacKillop rappelle que la gestion de la dépendance est avant tout une question de gestion de ses impulsions. Le professeur Dr Ashley Gearhardt de Yale University note de son côté que l’impulsivité serait une variable importante pour mieux comprendre le paradoxe comportemental d’une personne qui mange impulsivement (ses émotions) malgré la présence concomitante d’une sincère motivation à perdre du poids. Pour en savoir davantage : lire son article Vaincre la dépendance à la nourriture.  Là où cela peut devenir intéressant pour des professionnels de la santé mentale et des relations humaines, c’est ce à quoi s’associe une telle dépendance. Pour les chercheurs, la dépendance tant alimentaire, aux drogues qu’à l’alcool s’accompagne d’une pulsion quotidienne dite « urgence négative » qui se caractérise par une tendance à se comporter de manière impulsive et par l’expression d’émotions négatives, lesquelles conduisent à la recherche d’une consommation immédiate d’alcool, de drogue ou de nourriture. Cette urgence rend la personne inapte à gérer l’attente à combler ses besoins, ce qui également s’associe à un autre phénomène, celui de « persévérance faible », plus précisément la difficulté à gérer les tâches et les obligations quotidiennes, particulièrement celles dite « de routine ».

 

 

Pour mieux comprendre les mécanismes sous-jacents à l’impulsivité, il voir cette expression de soi en tant que perturbation de la capacité à inhiber des réponses automatiques, à résister à l’interférence proactive de pensées non pertinentes dans l’immédiat à la réalisation de tâches à réaliser. De manière à organiser cognitivement son expérience et donner sens à ses actions, « impulsives » va faire appel à des mécanismes de régulation émotionnelle. Pour Hislaire (2010), les mécanismes d’autorégulation émotionnelle peuvent être automatiques ou contrôlés, conscients ou inconscients. Dans tous les cas, ils servent à réduire, à accroître ou à maintenir plusieurs composantes d’une réponse émotionnelle suite à de mêmes événements.

 

  1. Blâme de soi – Se sur-responsabiliser face à des événements en plus ou moins grande partie hors de notre contrôle;

 

  1. Blâme d’autrui – Se dé-responsabiliser totalement face à un événement en rendant autrui, l’extérieur, responsable de sa situation;

 

  1. Rumination –  Pensées négatives constantes à l’égard de l’émotion associée à l’expérience d’un événement négatif.

 

  1. Dramatisation – Pensées explicites amplifiant les aspects négatifs d’un événement;

 

  1. Acceptation – Pensées relatives à de l’acceptation et de la résignation face à l’expérience vécue;

 

  1. Centration positive –  Mobilisation des pensées autour des aspects positifs de l’expérience et désengagement mental vers celles d’ordre négatif;

 

  1. Centration sur l’action – Mobilisation des pensées autour de scénario possible d’action de manière à gérer une situation négative;

 

  1. Réévaluation positive – Pensées accordant une signification positive à l’égard de l’expérience vécue, et ce, dans le cadre élargi de son développement personnel;

 

  1. Mise en perspective – Pensées qui relativisent l’expérience vécue par comparaison avec d’autres événements de vie.

 

Les résultats d’Hislaire (2010) rendent d’abord compte de la présence d’un « effet de switch » chez les personnes plus impulsives. En clair, l’auteure constate que les personnes plus impulsives ont généralement des réponses plus lentes – ils prennent plus de temps – pour traiter de nouveaux stimulus dans un contexte de transition ou de changement. De plus, cet effet de switch ou de réponse plus lente et difficile aux réalités nouvelles chez les personnes impulsives amène le plus souvent l’adoption de stratégies d’autorégulation de blâme de soi et de rumination. Sur ce dernier point, Hislaire (2010) constate des liens possibles à établir quant à la présence de stratégies de rumination et le blocage courant des personnes dans un style de relation aux autres et à l’environnement centré limitant la prise en compte de nouvelles informations, ce qui limite le sentiment de pouvoir sur soi de la personne, ce qui peut conduire éventuellement à des épisodes dépressifs.

 

 

Implication pour les professionnels de l’orientation professionnelle et du développement de carrière ?

 

Évaluer le niveau d’impulsivité d’une personne peut se faire par un examen plus étendu des enjeux d’urgence, de manque de persévérance, de préméditation et de recherche de sensation qui marquent le parcours de vie personnelle, scolaire ou professionnelle de la personne. L’impulsivité s’associe à des ancrages importants sur le plan de réponses émotives sous forme de stratégies d’autorégulation. Ces stratégies, ancrées dans des schémas de vie, sont difficiles à reconnaître et à mobiliser en vue de changements rapides. À court terme, des interventions d’ordre cognitives et comportementales, misant sur l’essai de nouvelles façons de pensées ou d’agir dans des situations spécifiques, puis surtout sur l’analyse individuelle, puis partagée avec son conseiller, de cette expérience peut permettre à la personne de « rejoindre » cette expérience émotionnelle bien ancrée.Ultimement, en prenant le temps de bien explorer et de chercher à comprendre avec la personne comment son impulsivité influence le parcours de sa vie, il est alors possible d’amorcer l’établissement de liens entre ce phénomène et les enjeux de prise de décision, de choix, d’élaboration de projets, d’adaptation et autres types d’actions relatives à la carrière. Une démarche d’intervention dite « éclairée » ne saurait donc se terminer par la simple identification d’un choix par « évitement » de situations à risque d’impulsivité chez la personne, mais bien par la reconnaissance – sans doute plus importante que le fait de faire un choix – que le problème potentiel pour la personne n’est pas le choix, mais le maintien de ce choix. Donc, le plan d’action proposé devrait non pas tenir compte uniquement de démarches liées à la concrétisation technique et concrète du choix, mais à l’adoption de nouvelles modalités d’autorégulation de la personne en contexte de situations à haute teneur d’impulsivité.

 

 

A propos de Louis Cournoyer 215 Articles
Professeur-chercheur (Counseling de carrière) / Directeur de la Clinique Carrière / Directeur des programmes de premier cycle en développement de carrière / Conseiller d'orientation et superviseur clinique Université du Québec à Montréal

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